Mechanical Performance of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Blended Concrete for Sustainable Construction

  • Y.O. Abiodun Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • S.O. Ehikhuenmen
  • M. D Ayanjimi
Keywords: Mechanical Performance, Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), Workability, Density, Structural Strengths


The increasing cost of cement and CO2 gas emissions associated with its usage and production has led to the search
for an alternative binder for sustainable environment. This research examines the mechanical performance of palm
oil fuel ash (POFA) as binder in concrete for sustainable construction. Ninety (90Nos) cubes (150mm), Ninety (90Nos)
cylinders (300mmlong × 150mmdia) and Seventy-two (72Nos) beams (750mm × 150mm × 150mm) specimens were
produced at varying POFA percentage replacement of 0 -50% at 10% interval with a water to cement ratio of 0.55
and a mix ratio of 1:1.5:3. Physical properties, chemical compositions and mechanical properties were investigated
at the fresh and hardened stages. Coefficient Equations Approach method was used for predicting the mechanical
performance of POFA blended concrete. The results showed that palm oil fuel ash exhibited some pozzolanic
properties and can be classified as class N pozzolan. The degree of workability increases gradually as the POFA
increased from 0 to 50% replacement level. High strength was recorded at 10% replacement in all mechanical tests
carried out. At 10% replacement of POFA, compressive strength value of 30.2N/mm2 was recorded which was higher
than the control specimen having 24.2N/mm2. At 28-day, the tensile strength of the concrete at 10% was
2.88N/mm2 and 2.2N/mm² for control and for flexural strengths 10% replacement with POFA gave a strength of
4.85N/mm² compared to 3.9 N/mm² of control specimens. Further increase in POFA replacement resulted in
declined strengths. The developed models were in good agreement with the experimental data. This research work
has led to the creation of POFA blended concrete which can be used in Civil Engineering construction works


Adesogan, S. O. (2014). Strategies and techniques of providing adequate and affordable potable water in rural areas
of Nigeria. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 6(1): 32–39.
ASTM C618-12a (2012). Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in
Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, US.
Awal, A. A. and Hussin, M. W. (1997). The effectiveness of palm oil fuel ash in preventing expansion due to alkalisilica reaction. Cement and Concrete Composites, 19(4), 367-372.
British Standard Code of practice (1985). Specifications for Minimum Concrete Strength. London. BS8110:1.
BS 12 (1996). Specification for Portland Cement. British Standard Institution, London.
BS EN 1008 (2002). Mixing water for concrete - Specification for sampling, testing and assessing the suitability of
water, including water recovered from processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete.
389 Chiswick High Road, London.
BS 882 (1992). Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. British Standard Institution, London.
BS EN 12350: Part 2 (2000). A method for Determination of Slump. British Standard Institution, London.
BS EN 12350-6: (2009). Testing Fresh Concrete Density of Test Specimens. British Standard Institution, London.
BS EN 12390-3: (2009). Testing Hardened Concrete. Compressive Strength of Test Specimens.
British Standard Institution, London.
BS EN 12390-6: (2009). Testing Hardened Concrete. Tensile Splitting Strength of Test Specimens. British Standard
Institution, London.
Donatello, S., Tyrer, M. and Cheeseman, C. R. (2010). Comparison of test methods to assess pozzolanic activity.
Elsevier: Cement and Concrete Composites. Elsevier Ltd, 32(2): 121–127.
Deepak, T. J., Elsayed, A., Hassan, N., Chakravarthy, N., Tong, S. Y. and Mithun, B. M. (2014). Investigation on
properties of concrete with palm oil fuel ash as cement replacement. International Journal of Scientific and
Research, 3, 138-142.
Ikponmwosa, E., Fapohunda, C. and Ehikhuenmen, S. (2014). SUITABILITY OF POLYVINYL WASTE POWDER AS
(NIJOTECH), 33(4): 504–511.
Islam, G. M. S., Rahman, M. H. and Kazi, N. (2017). Waste glass powder as partial replacement of cement for
sustainable concrete practice. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment. The Gulf
Organisation for Research and Development, 6(1): 37–44.
Karim R., Zain M., Jamil M. and Islam N. (2011). Strength of Concrete as Influenced by Palm Oil Fuel Ash. Australian
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 990–997.
Joshua, O. and Ogunde, A. (2015). Exploring the Pozzolanic Potential of Blend of Palm Kernel Nut Ash ( PKNA ) With
Cement Towards a Sustainable Construction. International Conference on African Development Issues,
Manjunath, B. T. A. (2016). Partial Replacement of E-plastic Waste as Coarse-Aggregate in Concrete’, Procedia
Environmental Sciences, 35, 731–739.
Marthong, C. (2012). Sawdust Ash ( SDA ) as Partial Replacement of Cement. International Journal of Engineering
Research and Applications, 2(4): 1980–1985.
Mclellan, B. C. et al. (2011). Costs and carbon emissions for geopolymer pastes in comparison to ordinary portland
cement. Elsevier Journal of Cleaner Production. Elsevier Ltd, 19(9–10): 1080–1090.
Michael, G. et al. (2014). The Effect of Population Explosion on Family Standard of Living in Calabar , Nigeria.
European Scientific Journal, 10(20): 190–204.
Munir, A. et al. (2015). Utilization of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) in producing lightweight foamed concrete for nonstructural building material. Procedia Engineering. Elsevier B.V., 125, . 739–746.
Oj, O., Lm, O. and Sp, A. (2015). Performance of coconut shell ash and palm kernel shell ash as partial replacement
for cement in concrete. Journal of Building Materials and Structures, 2, 18–24.
Oyejobi D.O., Abdulkadir T.S. and Ahmed A.T. (2015). A Study of Partial Replacement of Cement with Palm Oil Fuel
Ash in Concrete Production. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 12(4): 619–631.
Raheem, A. A., Olasunkanmi, B. S. and Folorunso, C. S. (2012). Saw Dust Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in
Concrete. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 4(2): 36–40.
Resch, E. et al. (2016). Impact of Urban Density and Building Height on Energy Use in Cities’, Energy Procedia, 800–
Rezaul Karim, M. et al. (2011). Strength of concrete as influenced by palm oil fuel ash. Australian Journal of Basic
and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 990–997.
Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C. and Kiattikomol, K. (2007). Influence of pozzolan from various by-product materials on
mechanical properties of high-strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials- Elsevier, 21, 1589–
Sooraj V.M (2013). Effect of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on Strength of Properties of Concrete.
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(6): 1-7.
Subramani, T. and Anbuchezuian A. (2017). Experimental Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash As Cement Replacement of
Concrete. International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, 6(3): 1–5.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE’, Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), 31(2):
V, S. D., Gnanavel, B. K. and Murthi, P. (2015). Experimental Investigation on the mechanical properties of steel slag
ceramic concrete’, International Journal of ChemTech Research, 8(8): 152–160.
How to Cite
Abiodun, Y., Ehikhuenmen, S., & Ayanjimi, M. D. (2020). Mechanical Performance of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Blended Concrete for Sustainable Construction. Journal of Engineering Research, 25(2), 213-226. Retrieved from