EFFECTS OF EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS BASIC SCIENCE
Basic science, a major aspect of Basic Science and Technology is a core subject in the junior secondary school in which the method of teaching over the years has been a major challenge in this 21st century. An important tenet of Explicit Instruction is maximizing and encouraging meaningful learning. Ausubel’s learning theory emphasized that knowledge is acquired primarily by direct exposure rather than through discovery. Subject concepts are presented, followed by the details and then being specific. Poor achievement in basic science, as well as attitude towards basic science, may deprive students’ from benefiting in basic science. This study investigated the effect of explicit instruction on students’ achievement and attitude towards basic science. The sample comprised 156 basic science students from intact classes of two randomly selected Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos State. Quasi-experimental pre-test post-test non-equivalent research design was involved. Two instruments: Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT) and Basic Science Attitude Scale (BSAS) were used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using Descriptive statistics and ANCOVA while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The Study revealed that Explicit Instruction improved the achievement and attitude of students towards basic science. It was also found that there was no significant effect of gender on the achievement and attitude of students towards basic science. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that explicit instruction should be adopted in teaching basic science students. The study, therefore, will help teachers/lecturers to inculcate the habit of being direct and explicit in science classes more especially in practical classes so that students will be guided towards achieving meaningful learning.